Wednesday, February 2, 2011

Investigators at University of Aberdeen Target International Studies

According to recent research from Scotland, "We examine the commitments of transnational corporations to human rights, labor, environmental, and anti-corruption standards."
"Modeling commitment as a function of the nature of the firm's business activities and conditioned by neighborhood and audience contexts, we investigate adherence to the principles entailed in the UN Global Compact program by the world's 2000 largest companies. Our results suggest that the decisions to participate in and to take steps to comply with the Global Compact are influenced by the characteristics of the firm as it adapts to its institutional and political environment," wrote P. Bernhagen and colleagues, University of Aberdeen.
The researchers concluded: "Signing up to the program increases the likelihood of firms developing human rights-related company policies and receiving positive external assessments of their performance."

Studies from University of Oslo in the Area of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Published

In this recent study, researchers in Oslo, Norway conducted a study "To explore white matter (WM) and gray matter tissue integrity in the apparently unaffected hemisphere of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) who have gross unilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions and both verbal and visuospatial memory deficits. This study had institutional ethics committee approval and included written informed consent."
"Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in five patients who had recovered from HSE (one woman, four men; median age, 32 years; interquartile range, 28.5-37 years) and 51 age-matched controls (30 women, 21 men; median age, 32 years; interquartile range, 28-37 years). As markers of microstructural WM integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity (RD) derived from diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging were used. An automated regional brain segmentation approach yielded estimates of subcortical volumes, including hippocampus, and cortical thickness. Group differences were evaluated by using permutation tests. Examination of standard MR images found unilateral lesions in all patients. The patients with HSE showed reduced FA and increased MD and RD in several WM tracts contralateral to lesions (P < 0.5, corrected for multiple comparisons). Affected tracts included connections between the MTLs and other parts of the brain. No significant group differences were observed in subcortical volume or cortical thickness. These results suggest that patients with HSE have reduced microstructural integrity of normal-appearing WM contralateral to grossly visible lesions," wrote H. Grydeland and colleagues, University of Oslo.

Researchers from Gyeongsang National University Describe Findings in Global Optimization

According to recent research from South Korea, "In this paper, we consider a differentiable multiobjective optimization problem with generalized cone constraints (for short, MOP)."
"We investigate the relationship between weakly efficient solutions for (MOP) and for the multiobjective optimization problem with the modified objective function and cone constraints [for short, (MOP) (eta) (x)] and saddle points for the Lagrange function of (MOP) (eta) (x) involving cone invex functions under some suitable assumptions. We also prove the existence of weakly efficient solutions for (MOP) and saddle points for Lagrange function of (MOP) (eta) (x) by using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type optimality conditions under generalized convexity functions," wrote J.W. Chen and colleagues, Gyeongsang National University.
The researchers concluded: "As an application, we investigate a multiobjective fractional programming problem by using the modified objective function method."
Chen and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Global Optimization (Multiobjective optimization problems with modified objective functions and cone constraints and applications. Journal of Global Optimization, 2011;49(1):137-147).
For additional information, contact Y.J. Cho, Gyeongsang National University, Dept. of Math Education, Chinju 660701, South Korea.
Publisher contact information for the Journal of Global Optimization is: Springer, Van Godewijckstraat 30, 3311 Gz Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Study Data from M.D. Voisei and Colleagues Update Understanding of Global Optimization

"The aim of this paper is to show that the results on triality and tri-duality in Gao (J Glob Optim 17:127-160, 2000; J Glob Optim 29:377-399, 2004; J Glob Optim 35:131-143, 2006; Encyclopedia of optimization, 2nd edn," scientists in Iasi, Romania report.
"Springer, New York, pp 822-828, 2009) and Gao et al. (J Glob Optim 45:473-497, 2009) are false," wrote M.D. Voisei and colleagues.
The researchers concluded: "To prove this we provide simple counterexamples."
Voisei and colleagues published their study in the Journal of Global Optimization (Counterexamples to some triality and tri-duality results. Journal of Global Optimization, 2011;49(1):173-183).
For more information, contact C. Zalinescu, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty Math, Iasi, Romania.
Publisher contact information for the Journal of Global Optimization is: Springer, Van Godewijckstraat 30, 3311 Gz Dordrecht, Netherlands.

Geographical Science; New Geographical Science Research from Clark University Outlined

According to a study from the United States, "/ Place-making - the set of social, political and material processes by which people iteratively create and recreate the experienced geographies in which they live - is an important but oft-neglected part of political theory. Place-making is an inherently networked process, constituted by the socio-spatial relationships that link individuals together through a common place-frame."
"While place-oriented scholars have long acknowledged the importance of interaction and communication in place-making, the mutual integration of network concepts, political theorisations and place conceptualisations has been relatively weak. We use case studies in Bolivia's forests and Athens, USA to explore how integrating these concepts can guide empirical research," wrote J. Pierce and colleagues, Clark University.
The researchers concluded: "This article argues that a more robust and explicit notion of 'relational place-making'- the networked, political processes of place-framing - positions the concept of place in a way that offers new analytical utility for political and urban geographic scholars."
Pierce and colleagues published their study in Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (Relational place-making: the networked politics of place. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 2011;36(1):54-70).
For more information, contact J. Pierce, Clark University, Graduate School Geog, Worcester, MA 01610, USA.
Publisher contact information for the journal Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers is: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc., Commerce Place, 350 Main St., Malden 02148, MA, USA.